...on Austria's annexation of Bosnia, 1908
1. The Austrians,
taking advantage of a revolution in Turkey, annexed Bosnia.
This was a deliberate blow at the neighbouring state of Serbia
which had been hoping to acquire Bosnia since it contained about
3 million Serbs among its population.
Norman Lowe, Mastering
Modern World History (1982)
A GCSE revision book.
period 1900-1914 was a time of increasing tension between the
great powers, which exacerbated the long-term
'pressures-towards-war', moving towards the final crisis at
Sarajevo which sparked the First World War.
[Note that the AQA
syllabus only requires you to know about the
second Moroccan crises, the
How did international relations deteriorate, 1900-1913?
• Crises of 1905-1914
- Giles Hill on the growing tension
been suggested that imperial rivalries were a long-range cause
of World War I.
also been said that they were a safety valve, drawing off
European energies that might otherwise have erupted in war
France hoped to conquer Morocco in Africa, and
one of the points of the Entente Cordiale (1904) was that
the British would help them. But in 1905, Kaiser Wilhelm
visited Morocco and promised to protect Morocco against anyone
who threatened it.
Description of the Kaiser's landing in Morocco in 1905
Wikipedia on the Moroccan crisis of 1905
Moroccan Crises 1903-14 - very hard
Kaiser Wilhelm gave an interview to the Daily
Telegraph newspaper, in which - although he claimed that he
wanted to be friends with Britain - he said that the English
were 'mad', said that the German people hated them, and demanded
that: 'Germany must have a powerful fleet to protect her
interests in even the most distant seas'.
Daily Telegraph article of 1908 and
a comment on it by 'Trenches on the Web'
You English, are mad, mad, mad as March hares. What has come
over you that you are so completely given over to suspicions quite
unworthy of a great nation? ...
I have said time after time that I am a friend of England ... but you
make things difficult for me....
The prevailing sentiment among large sections of the middle and lower
classes of my own people is not friendly to England...
An interview with Kaiser
Wilhelm II, published in the Daily Telegraph, 28 October
Turkey had been in decline for a long time.
In 1908 there was a revolution in Turkey, and Austria-Hungary
took advantage of this to annex (take over) the Turkish state of
The Bosnian Crisis of 1908-9
Annexation of Bosnia - original documents
...on the annexation of Bosnia
2. Because of the
altered state of affairs in the Ottoman Empire ... I am forced
to announce the annexation of Bosnia.
Letter from Emperor Franz
Josef of Austria-Hungary
Wilhelm, 29 September 1908.
3. In order to raise
Bosnia to a higher level of political life ... The
new order of things will be a guarantee that civilization and
prosperity will find a sure footing in your home.
Proclamation of the Annexation,
6 October, 1908
There was a revolution in Morocco, and the French
sent in an army to put it down, then took over the country.
In the middle of this, Kaiser Wilhelm sent the gunboat
Panther to the Moroccan port of Agadir.
Wikipedia on the Agadir crisis of 1911
Now we know where our enemy stands.
Like a flash of lightening in the night these events have shown the
German people where its enemy is... When the hour of
decision comes we are prepared for sacrifices, both of blood and of
From a speech made in the
Reichstag (the German parliament) by the Kaiser, November
Germany is deliberately preparing to
destroy the British Empire. We are all to be drilled and
schooled and uniformed by German officials. Britain alone
stands in the way of Germany's path to world power and domination.
from an article in the
Daily Mail newspaper, 1909
As Turkey continued to grow
weaker, in 1912 Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria (calling themselves
the Balkan League) attacked Turkey and captured almost all the
remaining Turkish land in Europe. Sir Edward Grey,
the British Foreign Secretary, arranged a peace conference in
London, but in 1913 fighting broke out again.
Britain and Germany got together and used their influence to
bring the war to an end (Treaty of Bucharest, 1913).
relations before 1914
On 28 June 1914 Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb,
shot Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand – detailed
film footage of
Franz Ferdinand arriving at the Town Hall
Contemporary account (notice that it gets almost EVERY fact
1. For each of these 'crises' 1-6, explain
whether it is an example of:
2. How, and why, do explanations
Source B of why Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia differ from
Norman Lowe's explanation 1 at the top of this page?