The Significance of the Second Punic War
[What is the difference between 'Results' and 'Significance'?
Consider, then mouseover to see my suggestion here.]
The consequences of defeat for Carthage
a. The terms of the Peace [THING]
• they could keep their pre-war
Territory and trading centres along the coast,
and live as free men under their own laws - although they had to restore all lands and property to Masinissa and sign a treaty with him;
b. Hannibal and Reform
• Hannibal was elected Suffete
c. International weakness
• the loss of its Mediterranean empire meant that Carthage became just another trading port
d. The Cothon rebuilt
• Carthage's military port (the Cothon) port was rebuilt to hold 200 ships
- this may indicate a growth in trade
e. Carthago delenda est ('Carthage must be destroyed')
• many Romans believed that the Peace was too lenient, and that Carthage
should be destroyed - Cato ended every speech, whatever the subject,
with the words 'Carthago delenda est'
The origin of the Roman empire
a. The power of Rome
• Lazenby (1998) states that the war 'revealed the latent power of Rome' - its huge resources of money and manpower, its powerful navy and army, and the stability and resilience of its political institutions (e.g. the senate)
b. The Socii
• Hannibal had tried to persuade the southern Italian allies of Rome
(e.g. Arpi, Capua, Bruttium, Tarentum) to abandon Rome; Michael Fronda
(2010) has shown how - when Rome reconquered them, 'fiercely
independent' allies were turned into conquered colonies
• when Hannibal fled to Antiochus of Syria, who was resisting the Romans in the eastern Mediterranean, Scipio with his brother Lucius went there and defeated him (Battle of Magnesia, 190bc), establishing Roman power in the eastern Mediterranean.
d. Macedon and Greece
• Rome had gone to war with Philip V of Macedon 214-205bc when he allied himself with Hannibal. After the war they tried to keep out of Greek affairs but found themselves unable to do so, finally conquering Macedon in 147bc.
e. Roman trade expanded
• the destruction of Carthage removed a trading rival, and the period after the war saw a massive growth in Roman trade, ports - and the industries (textiles, olive oil) which produced trade goods.
Effects in Italy
a. The devastation of southern Italy
• 'deracination' - the taking-away of farmers for the army (which was traditionally made up of free farmers) took literally hundreds of thousands of small farmers from the land
b. Social changes
• the rapidly-changing economy produced changes in society - particularly the rise of a new social class of 'equites' (bankers, traders, estate owners) - which the old social structures could not cope with
c. Religious and Cultural changes
• the defeats of the war challenged people's beliefs in the old Roman gods - people (e.g. Flaminius) openly said that the auguries were useless
d. Political changes
• the war gave the aristocracy (20 noble families) the chance to grasp total political dominance
• the Roman writer Sallust (1st century bc) believed that the war marked the start of the beginning of Rome's political corruption, and of the erosion of its core values by luxury and wealth
This document contains the relevant sections of the set
Read the following passage from Polybius, and write answers to the questions which follow:
Polybius, Book 1, Chapter 3
Briefly describe the results of the Hannibalic War 
Explain how victory in the Hannibalic War helped the creation of the Roman Empire 
Do you accept that Polybius's interpretation of the results of the Second Punic War is true? Explain your opinion. You must refer both to this passage, and to your knowledge of Polybius as a writer.