[Rather than clutter up the text with explanations of how everything affected Scipio's reputation and built the 'Scipio Myth', I have included them as glosses to explore.]
Scipio's career up to 210bc
a. The Scipios
• Publius Cornelius Scipio was born into the Scipio family. They were one of the six main patrician families
(e.g. his father was Consul in 218bc) – but they drew most of their support from the plebs.
• Scipio was believed (by Livy) to have saved his father’s life at age 17 at Ticinus (218bc).
c. Scipio's Oath
• After Cannae, when he heard that a group of young men were contemplating leaving Italy, he took a group of followers and forced them to swear an oath
on his sword never to abandon Rome.
• In 213bc he was elected aedile (at least 6 years too young) – supposedly by
accident, whilst helping his elder brother Lucius .
e. Commander-in-Chief in Spain
• In 210bc was given command of the army in Spain – Livy (26.18) connected
this to a story that he was the only man brave enough to come forward.
Scipio in Spain
a. Carthago Novo (209bc)
• In a surprise campaign, Scipio captured Qart Hadasht,
renaming it Carthago Novo.
b. Battle of Baecula (209bc)
• Scipio defeated Hasdrubal, who was on his way to Italy to reinforce Hannibal
c. Battle of Ilipa (206bc)
• Scipio defeated Mago and Massinissa. For several days Scipio drew up his army with the Romans in the centre, but when he eventually attacked suddenly he put the Romans on the wings; the subterfuge worked, the Carthaginians deployed their forces wrongly, and Scipio destroyed their much-larger army.
d. Alliance with Massinissa
• Scipio released Massinissa’s nephew Massiva, who had been captured, and then recruited Massinissa as an ally – unfortunately, this merely meant that Syphax went over to the Carthaginians.
e. The Carthaginians abandoned Spain (205bc)
• Scipio put down a mutiny in the Roman army and an Iberian revolt, and a Carthaginian attempt to recapture New Carthage
Scipio invades Africa
a. Elected Consul (205bc)
• In 205bc, Scipio returned to Italy and was elected Consul by a landslide; he had wanted to be given Africa as his province –
i.e. acommission to invade Africa – in the end Fabius defeated him in the Senate, and Scipio was given only Sicily.
b. Scipio in Sicily (205-204bc)
• In Sicily, Scipio took Marcellus’s army and trained them.
c. Inasion of Africa (204bc)
• Fabius tried to get Scipio recalled and relieved of his command; Scipio turned the tables on him by so impressing the commission of inquiry with his preparations for invading Italy that in 204bc the Senate approved his invasion.
d. Battle of Utica (203bc)
• Scipio established a beachhead at Utica, but found himself pinned down in camp (the Castra Cornelia) by a large force of 30,000 infantry and 5,000 cavalry under Hasdrubal and Syphax.
e. Battle of the Great Plains (203bc)
• Very late in 203bc, Scipio defeated Hadrubal again, at the Battle of the Great Plains ; instead of keeping the hastati-then-principes-then-triarii as a three-deep line, he used the principes and triarii to move outwards lengthen the line and envelop the enemy ... a new battle-tactic and a development of his tactics at Baecula and Ilipa.
The Battle of Zama and the End of the War (202bc)
a. Armistice (203bc)
The Carthaginians sought peace, and Scipio signed a Treaty with them (ratified by the Roman senate) which stated:
b. War renewed (203bc)
• The Carthaginian senate recalled Hannibal from Italy in 203 BC; this allowed the war party in Carthage to gain control.
c. Pre-battle Conference (202bc)
According to Polybius and Livy (some modern historians doubt it ever happened), Hannibal met Scipio before the battle.
d. Battle of Zama (October 202bc)
• Before the battle, Hannibal gave no speech to his new troops, only to his veterans,whom he placed at the rear of his army (as a Roman army).
e. Peace (201bc)
• Polybius and Livy give the impression that peace was signed almost immediately; Cornelius Nepos
states that Hannibal fought on.
a. During the War
• For many years Scipio was opposed/blocked by Fabius and his supporters; according to Livy
Scipio only got the command in Spain because no one else wanted to do it.
b. Political Influence after the War
• Returning to Rome, Scipio had to pursue a political career as leader of the Scipio Family.
c. Military Influence
• He was Commander-on-Chief of the Army in Spain 210-205bc, where he developed radical new battle-tactics.
d. Religious Influence
• Scipio was rumoured to be the son of Jupiter, who had come to his mother in form of a huge snake.
e. Opposition and Fall
• After the 190s, opposition to Scipio grew steadily, led by Cato and traditionalists who wanted to return to the old Roman ways.
This document contains the relevant sections of the set
1. Scipio was one of a few generals in history who never lost a battle. Make a list of the battles he won, and makes notes on how he won.
2. The 'Scipio Myth' grew up around Scipio - according to Polybius, as intentional propaganda by Scipio himself. Search the glosses and make notes on all the ways Roman writers used and enhanced Scipio's achievements to create the Myth. How justified was it?
3. Read the following passage from Polybius, and write answers to the questions which follow:
Polybius, Book 10, Chapter 2
Briefly describe Scipio's military successes 
Explain why Scipio never lost a battle 
Do you accept that Polybius's description of Scipio Africanus is accurate? Explain your opinion. You must refer both to this passage, and to your knowledge of Polybius as a writer.