Test your Understanding
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What was the ceasefire of November 1918 called?
When did the Versailles Conference begin?
How many countries attended the Conference?
What did Sir Eric Geddes want?
'everything you can squeeze out of a lemon, and a bit more'.
Who were the three most important men at the Conference?
Georges Clemenceau, Woodrow Wilson, David Lloyd George
What was their nickname?
The Big Three
Who was the prime minister of France?
List 4 things Clemenceau wanted from the peace.
make Germany pay reparations
Who was the President of America?
Give 7 things Wilson wanted from the peace.
make the world safe
League of Nations
What were his ideas for a better world called?
What were the 3 main ideas of the Fourteen Points?
League of Nations
What was the name for the assembly, where Wilson wanted countries to talk about their problems, instead of going to war?
League of Nations
Who was the Prime Minister of Britain?
David Lloyd George
Give 5 things Lloyd George wanted from the peace.
'make Germany pay', but not too much
not too harsh
What were the FOUR terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
Which Clause blamed Germany for the war?
What were ‘reparations’?
Money Germany had to pay for the damage done during the war
How much were reparations eventually set at?
Explain the 5 things the Treaty said about Germany’s armed forces.
Germany was forbidden to have submarines
Germany was forbidden to have an air force.
Germany could have a navy of only six battleships
Germany could have an Army of just 100,000 men.
Germany was not allowed to place any troops in the Rhineland, the strip of land, 50 miles wide, next to France.
List 5 areas of land in Europe that Germany lost.
What is the word which means that troops were not allowed in the Rhineland?
What happened to Germany’s colonies?
Given as League of Nations 'mandates' to Britain and France.
What did the Treaty say about Austria?
Anschluss with Germany was forbidden
Why did the Germans refuse to agree to Clause 231?
They did not believe it was true -- they said Russia had started the war.
What made the Germans pay reparations in January 1921?
Britain, France and Belgium invaded.
Why were the Germans angry about their tiny army?
They could not defend themselves
What did the German sailors do to the fleet?
Scuttled (sank) it.
How much of its land did Germany lose?
Explain why the Germans thought the Treaty was unfair.
They had not been asked to Versailles, and few of the 14 Points got into the Treaty.
What did the Germans feel when they heard about the Treaty?
‘pain and anger’ - a German newspaper called it 'the disgraceful Treaty'
Who did the Treaty helped to rise to power.
What did a German newspaper promise?
We will never stop until we win back what we deserve.
List 4 things Clemenceau liked about the peace.
Reparations (would repair the damage to France),
The tiny German army, and the demilitarised zone in the
Rhineland (would protect France),
France got Alsace-Lorraine, and German colonies.
Why did he dislike it?
He wanted the Treaty to be harsher.
He wanted Germany to be split up into smaller countries.
What two things did Wilson get that he wanted?
League of Nations Self-determination
Why did he hate the Treaty?
Some of his 14 Points did not get into the Treaty.
Two things happened when Wilson went home. What?
When Wilson went back to America, the Senate refused to join the League of Nations, and even refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles!
Lloyd George liked two things about the Treaty. What?
The fact that Britain got some German colonies (expanded the British Empire),
The small German navy (helped Britain to continue to 'rule the waves').
What did Lloyd George hate about the Treaty?
He thought it was too harsh and would start another war in 25 years' time.
List the four other treaties of 1919–20.
aint Germain (with Austria)
euilly (with Bulgaria)
rianon (with Hungary)
čvres (with Turkey)
List four reasons the Treaty of Versailles was more important than these treaties.
decided by the Big Three,
set up the League of Nations,
set down the principles of how the defeated countries would be treated.
What were the four main principles of the Treaty of Versailles?
reparations/ disarmament/ loss of land/ self-determination
What does ‘self-determination’ mean.
The right to rule yourselves.
List 5 new nation-states created by the treaties of 1919–20.
zechs and Slovaks in Czechoslovakia
ungarians in Hungary
ustrians in Austria
oles in Poland
lavs in Yugoslavia
Which empire did it split up to make these new nation-states?
Which races ruled in Czechoslovakia?
Czechs and Slovaks
Which people ruled in Yugoslavia?
List four problems with self-determination.
It caused small
ars in Poland, Teschen and Fiume.
It was not allowed for
It created many small,
eak countries, which Hitler easily conquered later.
The new nation-states had racial
inorities living there.