Revision Diary

1900-1914: Morocco and Agadir

         

Moroccan Crises 1905 and 1911.

  

Make sure you have detailed factual knowledge about AND HAVE THOUGHT ABOUT the following issues and topics:

  

WHY DID TENSION INCREASE IN EUROPE 1900-1914?

1.  A description of the Moroccan Crisis of 1905.

2.  The effects of the 1905 Morocco Crisis.

3.  A description of the Agadir Crisis of 1911

4.  The effects of the 1911 Agadir Crisis.

 

    

  

  

WHY DID TENSION INCREASE IN EUROPE, 1900-1914?

     

The Moroccan Crisis of 1905

Background

    Background of tension & rivalry (esp Imperialism - nb Kaiser Wilhelm had said Germany wanted 'a place in the sun'.

    Morocco was a weak and France hoped eventually to conquer it.   In 1903, the French based an army on the Moroccan border.  

    In Feb. 1905, France demanded control over the Moroccan army and police.   The Sultan refused.

Meat

     In March 1905, Kaiser Wilhelm visited Tangiers in Morocco.

     He told the French agent (Count Cherisay) that he wanted free trade for Germany in Morocco, that he supported the Sultan's claim to the throne and wanted France to do so too - then he dismissed the agent before he could reply.

    He then gave a speech in which he promised to defend Morocco as 'free and independent empire subject to no foreign control'.

End

    There was an international crisis over the Kaiser's visit - both sides openly threatened war.

    The French (scared of another war with Germany) were going to back down, but the British encouraged them to take a firm line.

    A Conference was held at Algeciras (1906), where Britain and Russia supported France (Britain stationed a navy patrol outside Algeciras harbour); Germany was forced to promise to stay out of Morocco.  

 

        

Revision Focus

This is a Paper 1 topic, so concentrate on learning:

1.   WHAT happened

2.   EFFECTS/ Importance

  

Links

e-book on the crises leading to WWI.

  

Spidergram:

   How did international relations deteriorate?

     

Powerpoint:

    Crises    ppt.   swf.

 

  

Effects of the 1905 Moroccan Crisis

1.   The French were furious with Germany.

2.   The British saw it as yet another attempt by Germany to build a German Empire to rival Britain's empire.

3.   A Conference was held at Algeciras (1906), where Britain and Russia supported France, and Germany was forced to promise to stay out of Morocco.   This in turn annoyed Germany, who felt humiliated.

4.   In 1907, Britain and Russia, alarmed by German ambitions, made an Entente - adds to alliance tensions.

5.   Caused the War?  

     Note that it is arguable that the 1905 Moroccan Crisis was the main cause of the war.  

     Algeciras convinced Germany that the other countries were 'ganging up' to stop Germany occupying its rightful place in the world - from this moment on, Germany began preparing actively for war.

    

  

The Agadir Crisis of 1911

Background

    Background of tension & rivalry (esp Imperialism - nb Kaiser Wilhelm had said Germany wanted 'a place in the sun'.

    At Algeciras, Germany had recognised France's right to Morocco - the French Foreign Legion took over internal security in Morocco.

    In 1910, France made a huge loan to Morocco, and took control of customs and taxes.

    German newspapers were angry when the French sent a gunboat to Agadir in southern Morocco in 1910.

Meat

    In March 1911 there was a rebellion near Fez in northern Morocco.   The French sent an army to defend Fez, even though the Germans warned them that this broke the Treaty of Algeciras.

    In June 1911, the Germans announced that they needed to protect German citizens in southern Morocco (even though there were no German citizens in southern Morocco).

    In July 1911, Kaiser Wilhelm sent the gunship Panther to Agadir.   It 'rescued' ONE German.

    Germany demanded huge compensation for France's actions.

End

    There was an international crisis - war-fever in Germany/ in Britain, Lloyd George attacked Germany and promised support for France ('Mansion House speech').

    Nov 1911: Treaty of Berlin - Germany forced to remove the gunship and accept minor compensation (a small piece of land in the Congo) for Fez.   Morocco became a French colony.

  

  

Effects of the 1911 Agadir Crisis

1.   There was an international crisis:

    War-fever in Germany - the French had broken their promises at Algeciras.

    France and Britain were furious - Germany had broken its promises at Algeciras (in Britain, Lloyd George attacked Germany and promised support for France in his 'Mansion House speech').  

2.   Nov 1911: Treaty of Berlin - Germany forced to remove the gunship and accept minor compensation (a small piece of land in the Congo).   Morocco became a French colony.   This increased German resentment: Wilhelm said: 'these events have shown the German people where its enemy is'.

3.   Caused the War?  

     Note that it is arguable that the Agadir Crisis was the main cause of the war.  

     One historian has written: 'the Kaiser was determined not to be the loser in the next crisis'.