There has been a question on Stalin
GET HIM LEARNED!!!
Struggle for power with Trotsky; elimination of other rivals in the
1920s; purges in the
1930s; the 1936 Constitution.
Five Year Plans and
growth of industry; economic effects.
Make sure you have detailed factual knowledge about AND HAVE
THOUGHT ABOUT the following issues and topics:
HOW FAR DID STALIN SET UP A PERSONAL DICTATORSHIP?
1. The STORY of Stalin's
seizure of power.
2. The STORY of Stalin's
3. How did Stalin keep power?
TO WHAT EXTENT DID STALIN MAKE THE USSR A GREAT ECONOMIC
5. The 5-Year Plans.
and that you are able to explain:
HOW FAR DID STALIN SET UP A PERSONAL DICTATORSHIP?
Trotsky was leader of
the Cheka and the Red Guards, although he was arrogant and unpopular.
a great political thinker, although many Russians feared his idea of
immediately starting world revolution would ruin Russia.
Stalin was a leading
Bolshevik in the 1917 revolution, although not as important as he later
He looked after Lenin in
his final illness, although Lenin in his Testament said that he
was too power-mad to be trusted as leader.
1922 Stalin became General Secretary of the
Communist Party - he used this position to build up contacts and push
his supporters into positions of power.
1922 he also became Commissar of
This gave him control over all the non-Russian peoples
of the USSR.
Stalin believed in the much safer
policy of 'Communism in one country' - i.e. establish
the revolution in Russia before trying to spread it to
In 1924 Lenin died.
Stalin allied with the 'leftists' (Zinoviev and Kamenev) to cover up Lenins Will and to get Trotsky
dismissed (1925). Trotsky went into exile (1928).
Then, he allied with the 'rightists'
Bukharin, Rykov and
to get Zinoviev and Kamenev dismissed (1927).
Stalin put his supporters into the Politburo.
he argued that the NEP was uncommunist, and got Bukharin, Rykov and
Tomsky dismissed (1929).
Stalin's agents pursued
Trotsky to Mexico, where they assassinated him.
(Why Unnecessary Purges)
country - Stalin believed that the country had to be united and strictly
controlled if it was going to be strong.
believed Russia had 10 years to catch up with the western world before
- Stalin was power-made and murderously paranoid (he imagined plots
First Purges, 193033
anybody who opposed industrialisation, and the kulaks who opposed
Kirov, a rival to
Stalin, was murdered. Stalin used it as a chance to begin the
Great Purges (193439
were put on Show
trials, where they pleaded guilty to impossible charges of treason
(e.g. Zinoviev and Kamenev 1936/ Bukharin, Tomsky & Rykov 1938).
all the admirals and half the Armys officers were executed
imprisoned; churches closed down.
Russification of all the Soviet Union.
were denounced/ arrested/
sent to the Gulag (the system of labour camps). 20 million Russians (inc.
7 million kulkas) were
sent to the camps, where perhaps 10 million died.
Of The Terror Insane Stalin Grabs All Power)
Russia came to
dominate the whole USSR.
perhaps half died.
lived in fear of the Secret Police.
Terror provided free slave labour, but technology and science
were held back by loss of top engineers and scientists.
and navy weakened by
purges of leading officers
political opponents eliminated
IF YOU ARE ASKED THIS, MAKE
SURE YOU GIVE SOME
FACTS AS WELL.
CHEKA became the OGPU (1922), then the NKVD (1934).
of political opponents/ army/ church
- Russian language & traditions enforced throughout the Soviet Union
lived in fear -
20 million Russians were sent to the camps, where perhaps half of them
(party members loyal to Stalin) got all the new flats, jobs, holidays
= a kind of bribery
Censorship of anything that might reflect
badly on Stalin/ Propaganda
everywhere - pictures,
statues, continuous praise and applause/ Places
named after him/ Mothers
taught their children that Stalin was the wisest man of the age/ History
books and photographs were changed to make him the hero of the
Revolution, and obliterate the names of purged people (e.g. Trotsky).
TO WHAT EXTENT DID STALIN MAKE THE USSR A GREAT
Factors Now To Collectivise Kolkhoz)
old-fashioned/ inefficient/ no machinery/ too small/ subsistence (only
grew enough for themselves).
shortages in the towns
was not working
the USSR was 20 million tons of grain short to feed the towns.
- industry needed
to migrate to work in the towns.
which could be exported to raise money to buy foreign machinery and
Kulaks hid food from the government collectors.
Also they were influential, and led peasant opinion.
Stalin wanted to destroy them.
Stalin announced compulsory collectivisation. The
peasants burned their crops & barns, and killed their animals, so...
Famine - Stalin paused collectivisation and said the peasants
could own a small plot of land.
Collectivisation re-started. By 1932 two-thirds
of the villages had been collectivised. More resistance, leading
19323 Famine, esp. in Ukraine (where 5 million died).
Stalin declared war on, the Kulaks shot/ sent to gulag in Siberia.
All 7 million kulaks eliminated.
99% of land collectivised; 90% peasants live on one of
kolkhoz or 4,000 state farms. Farming run by government
Modern Government Tries Collectivisation)
of a million kolkhoz -
99% of land collectivised
90% peasants live on one of 250,000
kolkhoz or 4,000 state farms.
fertilisers/ large-scale/ new attitudes (trying to produce as much as
- by 1937, 97
million tonnes were produced PLUS cash crops for export.
workers - 17
million peasants migrated to work in the towns.
control - Officials
ran farming. Peasants obeyed the Party.
Stalin had all power.
- numbers fell 1928-38 (cattle 70-50m/ sheep 150-50m)
esp. in Ukraine (where 5 million died).
shot/ sent to gulag in Siberia.
7 million kulaks eliminated.
Many regions of the USSR were backward.
Stalin said that to be backward was to be defeated and enslaved.
But if you are powerful, people must beware of you
Stalin believed in Socialism in one country the USSR
become strong enough to survive, then take over the world.
believed that Germany was stronger than
Russia and would invade. In 1931, he prophesied: We
make good the difference in 10 years or they crush us.
The 5-year plans were very useful propaganda for Communism and
were two Five Year
192833 and 19321937.
Plans were drawn up by GOSPLAN (state planning organisation),
which set targets for every
industry, mine, factory and worker.
Foreign experts & engineers were called in
Workers were bombarded with propaganda
Alexei Stakhanov (who cut 102 tons of coal in one shift)
was held up as an example. Good workers could become 'Stakhanovites'
and win a medal.
Workers were fined if they did not meet their targets
people accused of undermining production were sent to the gulag.
(After the First 5-year plan revealed a shortage of workers)
were attracted by providing new crθches and day-care centres.
went to university and became doctors and scientists.
For big engineering projects such as dams or canals, slave labour
(such as political opponents, kulaks or Jews) was used.
There was a concentration on heavy industry at the expense of
consumer goods or good housing.
Stalin attacked the Muslim faith because he thought it was holding
The USSR was turned into a modern state (which was able to
stop Hitler in WWII).
There was genuine Communist enthusiasm among the young
were huge achievements:
- eg Magnitogorsk
- Dneiper Dam
- Belomor Canal,
- production rose 1927-37 from 5-36 billion kilowatts
production rose 1927-37 from 35-128 million tons
production rose 1927-37 from 4-18 million tons
significant increase in
& medicine and
Poor organisation, inefficiency, duplication, waste
Appalling human cost:
(sacked if late)