League of Nations
If you click on yellow
pointers, you will reveal all the facts that you ought to remember.
Try to remember BEFORE you click!
THE THREE STRENGTHS OF THE LEAGUE [memory Word:
- FOUR AIMS OF THE LEAGUE [memory word:
- Stop war
- (Article 10 of the Covenant = ‘collective security’)
- Improve people's lives and Jobs
- Encourage co-operation in trade
- Economic and social agencies.
- Enforce the Treaty of Versailles
- MEMBERSHIP OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS (5 THINGS)
- 42 countries joined at the start. By the 1930s this had risen to 60.
- May 1920, the US Senate voted against Versailles.
- The USSR did not join the League. In 1919 it set up the Comintern to cause revolution.
- Germany was not allowed to join the League as a punishment for causing WWI.
- The leading members were Britain and France, helped by Japan and Italy.
- THE STRUCTURE OF THE LEAGUE [memory word:
- Secretariat (2 things):
- supposed to co-ordinate the different functions of the League
- too few secretaries to do the work - slow and inefficient
- Council (2 things):
- met 4-5 times a year
- 5 permanent members - Br, Fr, It, Jap & Ger - with a veto.
- Assembly (2 things):
- the League’s main meeting, held once a year
- decisions only by unanimous vote
- + the Committees (CHIRMS):
- Court of international justice
- Health committee
- International Labour Organisation
- Refugees committee
- Mandates commission
- Slavery commission
- ALSO Conference of ambassadors (not really part of the League's organisation).
SIX SUCCESSES OF THE LEAGUE IN THE 1920s [memory word:
- Set up by the Treaty of Versailles
- Universal membership, all of which had signed the Covenant promising to support the League.
- Means of Influence (6 things)
- Covenant (26 promises which every member agreed to follow)
- Moral condemnation (public opinion)
- Arbitration (act as a referee)
- Sanctions (refuse to trade)
- Military Force (send an army)
- ‘Community of Power’ (acting together).
SIX FAILURES OF THE LEAGUE IN THE 1920s [memory word:
- Silesia, 1921
- Germany and Poland agreed to paritiion after a plebiscite.
- Aaland Islands, 1921
- said the islands should belong to Finland; Sweden and Finland agreed.
- Mosul, 1924
- the Turks demanded Mosul, Iraq. The League supported Iraq; Turkey agreed.
- Bulgaria, 1925
- Greece invaded Bulgaria, but withdrew when Bulgaria appealed to the League.
- Other (6 things):
- 400,000 Prisoners of War repatriated
- Turkish refugee camps (1922)
- Drugs companies closed down
- Attacked slave owners in Sierra Leone and Burma
- Economic advice to Austria and Hungary
- Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
- signed by 23 nations and supported by 65, to outlaw war.
TWO FAILURES OF THE LEAGUE IN THE 1930s
- Vilna, 1920
- Poland refused the League orders to withdraw from Vilna.
- Invasion of the Ruhr, 1923
- by France; the League was not even consulted, and Britain disagreed.
- Memel, 1923
- The League told Lithuania to leave, but the Conference of Ambassadors agreed.
- Corfu, 1923
- General Tellini murdered, so Italy occupied Corfu. The Conference of Ambassadors overruled the League’s order to Mussolini to leave – forced Greece to pay compensation to Italy.
- Other Treaties (4 things):
- Washington, 1921
- Dawes Plan, 1924
- Locarno Pact, 1925
- The Geneva Protocol, 1924 (to support the League of Nations) failed because Britain refused to sign it
- Disarmament (2 things):
- Britain objected to the 1923 conference
- 1932-1934 conference was wrecked when Hitler demanded parity with France.
EIGHT REASONS THE LEAGUE FAILED [memory word:
- Manchuria, 1931 (3 points):
- The League sent officials (took a year)
- voted that Japan return Manchuria (Feb 1933 - Japan resigned from the League)
- could not agree economic sanctions or arms sales ban.
- Abyssinia, 1935 (3 points)
- Mussolini invaded (October 1935) Haile Selassie’s Abyssinia
- Britain and France secretly agreed to give Abyssinia to Italy (Hoare-Laval Pact, 1935)
- The League tried sanctions on arms sales, rubber and metals, but they did not close the Suez Canal or ban oil sales.
- These failures killed the League:
- Mussolini gained prestige
- Britain, France and the League were weakened - countries decided it was a ‘sham’, left and began to prepare for war instead.
- Britain and France
- were not prepared to use their armies and had other priorities.
- USA, USSR and Germany (3 points):
- USA was never a member
- USSR not until 1934
- Germany not until 1926, and Hitler left the League in 1933.
- its organisation [SCACHIRMS] was cumbersome so decisions were very slow.
- Treaty of Versailles set up the League
- so it was hated because the Treaty was hateful.
- Economic Depression
- countries acted to save their own interests, and ignored the League.
- dictators like Mussolini and Hitler would not compromise.
- the League’s failures damaged its reputation, so members left/ignored it.
- Powerless (3 points):
- moral condemnation was just ignored by powerful nations
- the League had no armies
- people found ways round sanctions.