1957, tension grew between Russia and America:
Sputnik satellite (1957) and space orbit (1961) gave them a
Americans believed America
was in danger.
1959, the Communist
Fidel Castro took power in Cuba, right next to
he made a trade agreement with Russia.
China was very aggressive.When Khrushchev visited America in 1959, the Chinese accused
him of going soft; this made Khrushchev demand that America withdraw
from West Berlin
summit was planned for May 1960 to discuss Berlin and nuclear weapons.
The American President Eisenhower wanted an 'open skies' agreement - that
Russia and America would let spy planes fly over each other's countries,
so that they could be assured the other wasn't preparing for
war. Khrushchev refused - but Eisenhower did so anyway.
5 May 1960 – just 9 days before the summit – the Russians announced that
they had shot down an
American U2 spy-plane on 1 May.
At first, the Americans tried to claim that it was a weather-plane
that had gone off-course.However,
the Russians put the pilot Gary Powers on trial for spying, and it was
clear that he was not a weather-man. The
Americans admitted it was a spy-plane.
Wreckage of Powers's U2 plane on
display at the Central Army Museum in Moscow
American Vice-President Nixon visited
Russia in 1959, he was taken round an exhibition at the US Trade Fair.At the kitchen display, he and Khrushchev had a public argument -
the so-called 'Kitchen
Debate' - about which was
better: Communism or capitalism.
Eisenhower gave his memoirs of his
time as President 1956-1961 the title: Waging Peace.
It reveals his belief that America had to take an aggressive role in the
Cold War during these years.
The results were:
summit ruined; Cold War continues.
summit met at Paris on 14 May 1960. Khrushchev
refused to take part in the talks unless the Americans apologised and
cancelled all future spy-flights.
Eisenhower agreed to cancel the spy-flights, but would not apologise –
Khrushchev went home; the Paris Summit collapsed.
planned visit to Russia cancelled.
and the Russians grew in confidence.
became angry with Eisenhower, who they said was losing the Cold War. After the U2 incident, America became more aggressive.
They elected John F
Kennedy, who promised to be much tougher on communism.
every nation know that we shall pay any price, bear and burden, meet any
hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, for the survival and
success of freedom.
the trumpet calls again . . . against the enemies of man: tyranny,
poverty, disease and war.Ask
not what your country can do for you: ask what you can do for your
speech of President Kennedy, 1961.
During the Cold War, the Americans
rated their intelligence information according to to two standards:
reliability (A-D) and accuracy (1-4). Very rarely was their
reliable and irrefutably accurate); it was usually C3 (usually reliable
and possibly accurate).
pupils asked to evaluate a piece of evidence might bear this system in
Discuss why the U2 incident came at a bad time
for the Americans.