Revise treaty of
unite all German speaking people in one country à
(make a greater
living space (lebensraum) -- to be independent
o In the east wanted:
as far as the
o In the west:
he should rule all
- divided the country in two
- German speaking people
- wanted to rearm; control over it again.
- Hitler was Austrian (NB)
- 8 million German speaking people
was banned by treaty of
to help make
hated treaty of
- economic problem is insufficient land to sustain needs of growing population.
- Superiority of German (Aryan) race
- Against Jews and slaves
- Hatred of communism
Planning for conquest:
Achieving doctorial power
Dealing with internal opposition -à having SA, secret police, enabling act
Gaining control of army after death of Hindenburg, army or Wehrmacht. SA would be military forces.
a non-aggression pact with
Recover economy through the New Plan.
In the long term:
Win over German people through education, censorship and propaganda.
Prepare German youth for future war.
Prepare German economy for war – four year plan –> 1936 – 1940
Weaken international system
Rearmament, at first secretly, but then openly
- overcome depression -- new plan was to satisfy middle and working class.
Lay foundations for a stronger
- New plan introduced by Schacht:
o Imports limited
o Strengthen currency
o Increase government spending
o Reduce unemployment: Public works projects
§ Compulsory National Labour Service
§ Conscription (1935)
§ Filling the jobs of Jews and political opponents with unemployed people
Removing and controlling opposition:
Trade unions, workers, women and Jews
National labour service
German Labour Front – Beauty of Labour and Strength through Joy
the economic plans a success?
- Reduced unemployment from 6 million to 1.5 million
- Increased currency value
- Depended less on imports à this went against world trade project
- Bad jobs
- Workers lost rights and were controlled through organisations
- Work through conscription, no good for economy.
Hard workers and loyal people benefited. Lack of consumer
goods, long working hours made it bad. Things got better than the
- Reduced unemployment
- Prepared for blitzkrieg instead of bettering people
- Little consumer goods, not everyone received their promised Volkswagen.
- Depend on imports for 1/3 of their raw materials -> expansionist foreign policy.
- Economy prepared only for short termed war.
Hitler’s aims could not be obtained without armed forces so he worked to make them suitable for war.
had to rearm to be able to succeed. They had been the only ones to disarm
so there can be some sympathy for them. Treaty of
secret meeting in 1933, it was decided that 1933-35
- 300,000 men instead of 100,000
- 1000 aircraft with secretly trained pilots
- barracks airfields and fortifications
- new air force - Luftwaffe and 2500 aircraft and 300,000 men
army to sign oath of allegiance
non-aggression pact with
conscription – MARCH 1935 – announced publicly to have 500,000 men
Franco-Soviet pact – 1935 - May
Anglo/German naval agreement – 1935 June -
This let German navy to have 1/3 of tonnage of British navy and equal tonnage of submarines.
Stresa Front – admit conscription was bad. Guarantee to protect Austrian independence.
No one stopped German rearmament.
did not stop because instead they put their money in building forts to
plebiscite - 90% of people voted to join
- Weakened little entente and Franco-Czech treaty
- Rome-Berlin axis turned into pact of steel.
- Chamberlain had introduced appeasement
Guarantees issued to defend
Nazi-Soviet pact – start of World War II
axis pact Sept. 1940 – Japan Italy and
by Treaty of Versailles because of self-determination. Austrians supported
him. Right wing and socialists clashed in street battles, political
oppositions. Attempt by
- Nazi totalitarian state and betterment in economy
- Cooperation in Spanish civil war
- Rome/Berlin axis
- Anti–Comintern pact
of other powers: Stresa Front collapse, Anglo/German naval agreement.
Maginot line, remilitarisation of the
- First Nazi attempt to take over, failed.
Mussolini would not defend Austrians after signing Rome-Berlin axis and Anti-Comintern pact.
Austrian Nazis started trouble.
Hitler made Schuschnigg, Austrian chancellor, restore Nazi party rights and free political prisoners and appoint Seyss-Inquart to be the minister of interior to give him control of police.
Inquart took over when
march 1938 – announced that
Austrian opponents were sent to concentration camps.
The Czech Crisis 1938- 1939
Heinleid --- German in
German People’s Party – Henleid meetings with Hitler and got $$ from
him. Hitler supported for transfer of
1938, Hitler stronger because:
- army economy and people prepared for war
stresa front failed,
remilitarisation of the
Treaties signed with
The Anschluss had placed
Hitler instructed generals to make plans to invade. He told Heinland to
make trouble in
Told generals to make plans to invade. Heinland was to make trouble as riots. Then he was to make impossible demands for independence so the Czech government would reject them and followers could make riots to show that government had no control. Then German army would maintain order, as Czechs had failed to do so.
There were two risks:
Godesburg - Chamberlain went for Hitler to agree with a proposal, but
Hitler said he wanted all of
They agreed to:
immediately transfer the
Later transfer to Teschen to
were forced to sign the Munich Agreement or face
said it was his last claim on
encouraged in his ambitions for southeast
Convinced Russians that they could not rely on British and
France and would have to make their own arrangements where
million Germans still living in
policy to avoid war with threatening powers, giving in to demands as
long as they’re reasonable
20’s – 37 – war must be avoided.
believed in taking initiative. Would find out what Hitler wanted and
of appeasement seen in Dawes and Young Plan and Locarno Treaties.
was appeasement reasonable at the time?
Essential to avoid
war after the glimpses of Sino-Japanese war and
Spanish civil war, war seemed devastating. They were afraid of
innocent civilians dying in bombs.
supported by pacific public opinion.
Chamberlain thought only way to solve dispute was through face-to-face
would be good for both. If
Fear of communist
Nobody should treat
It would give
week later, Hitler took
realised Hitler had lied, the
Dawes Plan (1924)
o German currency reorganised
Young Plan (pact of
o Reduce amount of reparations by 75% gave her 59 years to pay.
o Never worked because of Wall Street Crash
Kellogg Briand Pact (1928)
o Agree not to go to war for 5 years
o Settle disputes by peaceful means
Limit navies (British, American, French and Japanese)
Not to build any new battleships or cruisers for 10 years.
5:5:5:3 ratio always kept
- both created stable economic conditions and optimism about peace. Didn’t reduce German grievances at all.
wanted city of
March 1939 – Hitler convinced
Then marched into
1 week later –
this went against his promise of the
1939 – Anglo-French guarantee to
1939 – Pact of Steel –
began to consider possibilities of two front war with
army was only ready to invade
the Non-Aggression pact:
- Stalin needed time to prepare for war
Fear of two-front war with
- Secured peace for 1 ½ years
- New land would protect them and help him spread communism
thought this Non-Aggression pact would make
- would fight with determination
- Every polish house to be a fortress
- Hitler will have more to lose than to gain
September 3 1939 – war declared on Germany
of world war two:
- failures of league
- Paris Peace settlement effect on eastern Europe
- weakness of League
- effects of great depression
- Hitler’s invasions
- Pacts and treaties