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Revision Diary

Slide to War June-August 1914

         

Events leading to the outbreak of war.

  

Make sure you have detailed factual knowledge about AND HAVE THOUGHT ABOUT the following issues and topics:

  

WHY DID THE SARAJEVO ASSASSINATION LEAD TO THE OUTBREAK OF WAR IN 1914?

1.  A description of the slide to war, 1914.

 

    

  

  

WHY DID THE SARAJEVO ASSASSINATION LEAD TO THE OUTBREAK OF WAR IN 1914?

     

The Slide to War, 1914

      Note that you may need to use your knowledge of the events leading to the outbreak of war for two questions.   Firstly - as here - simply if you are asked to describe the events leading to war.   But secondly as part of an argument that the slide to war was a consequence of the Sarajevo assassination.

        

Revision Focus

This is a Paper 1 topic, so concentrate on learning:

1.   WHAT happened

2.   EFFECTS/ Importance

  

Links

e-book on events leading to the outbreak of WWI.

  

Spidergram:

   How did international relations deteriorate?

 

   

  

  

  

 

Austria

5 July:       Austria-Hungary approached the Germans and got a promise (the so-called 'blank cheque') that they could rely on Germany's support.

  

23 July:     The Austro-Hungarian government sent Serbia an ultimatum containing ten really tough demands.  (They expected Serbia to reject the ultimatum, which would give Austria-Hungary an excuse to invade.)

  

25 July:     But the Serbs agreed to everything EXCEPT part of demand 6 - Kaiser Wilhelm wrote: 'the reply amounted to the humblest capitulation, and with it disappeared all reason for war'.

  

28 July:     Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia anyway - they looked unreasonable and war-mad.

 

                 The Serbs asked their ally, Russia, for help. 

   

Russia

31 July:     Tsar Nicholas had already abandoned Serbia in 1908.   And - he told the Kaiser in a telegram - it was a matter of right versus wrong.   His generals told him it was impossible to mobilise only against Austria-Hungary, so he ordered a general mobilisation, but sent a telegram to the Kaiser assuring him that he was NOT mobilising against Germany. 

  

Germany

1 August:  To allow Russia to mobilise without response, said the Kaiser, was like letting an enemy put a loaded gun to your head.  Germany, therefore, mobilised and declared war on Russia.

  

3 August:  However, the Schlieffen Plan only envisaged a Germany attack on France so - claiming that French planes had bombed Nuremberg - Germany ALSO had to declare war on France.

  

Britain

2 August:  The Schlieffen Plan attacked France through Belgium - but when Germany asked to go through Belgium, the Belgians refused.   So next day, Germany invaded Belgium.

  

4 August:  By the Treaty of London (1839) Britain had promised to defend Belgium.   Therefore, Britain sent Germany an ultimatum - and when that was refused, declared war.  

                 'For a scrap of paper, Great Britain is going to make war?' asked Bethmann-Hollweg.