Mary quite contrary,
How does your garden grow?
silver bells and cockleshells,
And pretty maids all in a row.
nursery rhyme is about Mary Tudor.
'garden' is England. 'Silver bells and
badges worn by pilgrims to the shrine of Compostella in
'pretty maids' were the nuns she brought back to England.
Return to Rome - biased but straightforward
Mary - good site
historians' views - hard
tried to make England a Roman Catholic country again:
Catholic bishops were let out of the Tower and the
Protestant leaders imprisoned;
Latin Mass and Bibles were brought back;
Pole, the Pope's adviser, was brought to England from Rome
to re-introduce Catholic ways;
1554 the country was officially reunited with Rome and the
Pope declared Head of the Church;
married Prince Philip of Spain, an extreme Catholic;
300 Protestants who would not accepted Catholic beliefs
were burned to death.
disagree about the effect that Mary had on the
country. Most historians in the past believed that she turned the people
against Catholicism; but many modern historians say that most English people were delighted to go back to the Catholic
Mary's reign, England became a Roman Catholic country.
picture, from Foxe's Book of Martyrs, of the burning of
Archbishop Cranmer. Cranmer had been frightened
into renouncing his Protestant faith but - when he learned he
was going to be burned anyway - he declared himself again to
be a Protestant. When he was burned, he held the
hand that signed the deed in the flames until it was
completely burned, saying all the time: 'Unworthy hand'.
1558 Mary believed that she was pregnant, although Philip
had long before gone back to Spain. In fact, the
swelling was terminal cancer.