Revision Diary

1900-1914: Morocco and Agadir


Moroccan Crises 1905 and 1911.


Make sure you have detailed factual knowledge about AND HAVE THOUGHT ABOUT the following issues and topics:



1.  A description of the Moroccan Crisis of 1905.

2.  The effects of the 1905 Morocco Crisis.

3.  A description of the Agadir Crisis of 1911

4.  The effects of the 1911 Agadir Crisis.





The Moroccan Crisis of 1905


France hoped to conquer Morocco and make it a colony, but in 1905 Kaiser Wilhelm visited Morocco and promised to defend it against any country which tried to take it over; he said HE wanted a free trade agreement with Morocco!   France was furious, and in 1906 France, Britain and Russia got together and forced the Kaiser to back down.



1.   In 1903, the French put an army on the Moroccan border and it 1905, they demanded control over the Moroccan army and police.

2.   In March 1905, Kaiser Wilhelm visited Tangiers in Morocco.

3.   The 1906 Conference was held at Algeciras (Britain stationed a navy patrol outside Algeciras harbour).



Effects of the 1905 Moroccan Crisis

1.   The French were furious with Germany, and the British saw it as yet another attempt by Germany to build an Empire, so in 1907, France, Britain and Russia made the Triple Entente.

2.   At Algeciras, Germany was forced to promise to stay out of Morocco, which annoyed Germany, who felt humiliated.

3.   Note that it is arguable that the 1905 Moroccan Crisis was the main cause of the war.   Algeciras convinced Germany that the other countries were 'ganging up' on it - from this moment, Germany started getting ready for war.





The Agadir Crisis of 1911


France hoped to conquer Morocco and make it a colony, but in 1911 - after a small rebellion in Morocco - Kaiser Wilhelm sent a gunboat to Agadir harbour.   There was an international crisis - Britain threatened war - and in November 1911, Germany was forced to remove the gunship.   Morocco became a French colony.



1.   In 1910, France took control of customs and taxes and sent a gunboat to Agadir; this made Germany angry

2.   The Germans claimed that they needed to send the gunboat to protect German citizens in Morocco against the revolution (there was ONE German in Morocco).

3.   The Treaty which forced Germany to back down in 1911 was the Treaty of Berlin.



Effects of the 1911 Agadir Crisis

1.   France and Britain were furious because Germany had broken its promises at Algeciras (in Britain, Lloyd George attacked Germany and promised support for France in his 'Mansion House speech').  

2.   Nov 1911: Treaty of Berlin (where Germany was forced to remove the gunship and Morocco became a French colony) made Germany angry: Wilhelm said: 'these events have shown the German people where its enemy is'.

3.   Note that it is arguable that the Agadir Crisis was the main cause of the war.  

     One historian has written: 'the Kaiser was determined not to be the loser in the next crisis'.  


Revision Focus

This is a Paper 1 topic, so concentrate on learning:

1.   WHAT happened

2.   EFFECTS/ Importance



e-book on the crises leading to WWI.



   How did international relations deteriorate?



    Crises    ppt.   swf.