Hitler's Aims and Policy to 1938
Hitlers aims and
Aryan supremacy and
lebensraum; the Saar; Austria
Make sure that you know about:
1. Hitler's aims and policies,
It is unlikely that you will be asked to describe events of
the Saar or Austria on their own - it is much more likely that you will be
asked to describe Hitler's actions over a spread pf years.
Nevertheless, you must know:
2. the STORIES of Hitler's
actions to Apr 1938 and their results/importance.
Hitler declared most of what he did up-front in
Mein Kampf in 1924:
1. Abolish the Treaty of Versailles
his explained everything Hitler did before 1939.
H hated the ToB because of
The tiny armed forces (so
he re-armed German after 1935).
Rhineland demilitarised (so he marched in in March 1936).
Anschluss forbidden (so he annexed Austria in March 1938)
Germans under Czech and Polish
rule (so he took over the Sudetenland in Sept 1938, and attacked Poland
in Sept 1939).
and Aryan supremacy
The Nazi-Soviet Pact Aug 1939
gave him half of Poland, which he attacked in 1939.
The Nazis used Jews and
Gypsies and slave labourers in workcamps.
In June 1941, he attacked
The ToV had put the Saar under League
control for 15 years; in 1935 a plebiscite was held to decide what the
Saarlanders wanted to do. The Nazis beat up their opponents.
plebiscite, 90.3% voted to return to
It was a massive boost to Hitler and encouraged
him to try rearming.
17,000 Nazi Saarlanders (who had joined the SA in Germany to) threatened to invade.
This was stopped Dec 1935 when Britain offered to send soldiers to keep
Hitler built up the army and
Luftwaffe; in 1935 he held a huge rally to show off. Thsi
broke the treaty of Versailles, but Britain and France did nothing -
instead, in 1935, Britain made a naval agreement with Hitler.
Hitler was encouraged to try to
take back the Rhineland.
By 1939, Germany had 95
warships, 8250 airplanes and an army of almost 1 million.
Mar 1936, Hitler ordered his army into the Rhineland.
It had orders to retreat if the French
opposed it, but they did not - even though Hitler had broken the Treaty of
Hitler's popularity soared, and he was
encouraged to try Anschluss with Austria.
In 1938 - encouraged by Hitler - Austrian
Nazis rioted, calling for Anschluss. Br & Fr refused to
help Austria, so the Austrian Chancellor suggested a plebsicite to
see what the people wanted. Fearing that he would lose,
Hitler invaded. A plebiscite was held with the German Army
there, and the Austrians voted for Anschluss.
Although this openly broke
the Treaty of Versailles, nobody did anything
the Austrian Chancellor was
Hilter threw 20,000 Austrians
In the plebscite, 99.75% voted