Revision Diary

Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan


Truman Doctrine; Marshall Plan; attitudes of Stalin and Truman.



Make sure that you know about the Truman Doctrine and its results, and also about the Marshall Plan and its effects.




Truman Doctrine


British soldiers were defending Greece from the Communists, but in Feb 1947 the British told Truman they could not afford to keep them there any more.

Truman was scared that Russia was growing stronger.   He told Congress that Communism was growing, and that it was America's duty to stop it expanding any further (this was called 'containment').

Truman paid for the soldiers to defend Greece.   He also sent General George Marshall to Europe to see what else needed to be done to stop Communism.



1.  The date of Truman's speech was 12 Mar 1947.

2.  Truman asked for $400 million for military intervention in Greece and Turkey

3.  Truman's speech ended the 'Monroe Doctrine', which had said that America should keep out of Europe's affairs - so his ideas became known as the 'Truman Doctrine'



Results of Truman Doctrine

  1. America changed her policy - overturned the 'Monroe Doctrine' of isolation - and adopted instead the 'Truman Doctrine' .

  2. Congress allocated $400 million for military intervention in Greece and Turkey - the Communists were quickly defeated in both countries.

  3. Truman's decision to intervene to stop Communism led to the Marshall Plan, the Korean War and NATO.





Marshall Plan


Truman sent General George Marshall to Europe to see what was needed to stop the spread of Communism.   Marshall came back believing that Europe was so poor that ALL EUROPE in danger of turning Communist.

Marshall gave a speech saying America needed to give vast sums of money to get the European economy going.

At first, Congress did not want to send so much, but in March 1948 Czechoslovakia turned Communist, so Congress voted the funding.



1.  In all, America paid out $12bn of Marshall Aid.   The money was spent on roads and railways, factories, tractors, fishing nets, food aid etc..

2.  It was Britain who organised the countries of Europe to hold a meeting on 12 July 1947, and to ask for aid. 

3.   The proper name for 'Marshall Aid was European Recovery Program (ERP).  



Results of the Marshall Plan

  1. This money worked - it stopped further countries from turning Communist.

  2. Stalin forbade Iron Curtain countries to seek Marshall Aid, and set up Cominform as a counter-influence.

  3. Co-operating over the Marshall Plan led eventually to the 'European Economic Community' (the EU).





Revision Focus

This is a Paper 1 topic, so concentrate on learning:

1.   WHAT happened

2.   EFFECTS/ Importance



Mini book on Truman Doctrine/ Marshall Plan,



Online revision sheet  







Essays on What was the Truman Doctrine?  and What was the Marshall Plan?